How do I get BiPAP?
You have to have a physician's order (prescription) to get a BiPAP machine even if you do not plan to seek insurance reimbursement so the first step is:
- Finding a Doctor
- Unfortunately, finding someone who is "cross trained" to understand both the effects of neuromuscular disease on respirations and the respiratory assistance machines available can be hard. The neurologist knows neuromuscular disease but diddly about the machines. The pulmonologist (physician specializing in respiratory problems) knows the machines but not neuromuscular disease.
- In our screwed up health care delivery system someone might require that you see a sleep specialist. The sleep guys are used to sleep apneaics who have good lung power and may be unfamiliar with the problems of the neuromuscular patient.
- Start with your neurologist. A neurologist who works with ALS patients should certainly be familiar with BiPAP. He may handle your respiratory care himself, but may prefer to refer his patients to a pulmonologist for respiratory care at that point. I would be reasonably comfortable with either of them, but if I were sent to a sleep specialist I would most definitely ask "How many ALS patients on BiPAP have you cared for?" and if he could not demonstrate a very good understanding of ALS, I would be looking elsewhere.
- The doctor who handles your respiratory care is going to be a very important person in your care. Patients with ALS who do not want to go on a ventilator most often die of respiratory failure so this doctor will be the one who sees you through to the end or sees you through many years on a ventilator. You may still see other doctors, but odds are that this is the one who will be there directing most of your care. You need someone who is comfortable not only in deciding what pressure settings you need and dealing with any respiratory infection, but also in listening, explaining and helping you make decisions about things like tube feedings, code status, and whether or not to switch to full ventilation when BiPAP is no longer sufficient and perhaps when to discontinue the ventilator. At some point he or she will likely be the physician you depend on to make the end as easy and dignified as possible.
- Undergoing Testing
There are several tests doctors can do to monitor how much ALS is affecting breathing:
- A respiratory function test involves huffing and puffing into a machine to see how much lung capacity you have. The FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) which is basically how deep a breath you can take is one of the most important findings of the test. At about 70% of normal you begin to notice problems, less than 60% is considered moderate, less than 40% is severe. People with neuromuscular diseases should have the test done while they are lying down as that is when their breathing is the most impaired. A respiratory function test/FVC does not show whether you have sleep apnea or if hypopnea is even worse when you fall asleep, however.
- Another helpful test is a simple test of blood oxygen level. This is reported as Oxygen
Saturation (O2 Sat) percentage. An O2 Sat of 96% means that 96% of your red bloods cells are
carrying a full load of oxygen (are saturated) like they are supposed to be. Normal is 90% or
better (usually high 90's). O2 Sat monitoring can be done with a simple little device you clip
or tape on your finger tip. No needles! For us, the important thing is to wear the device while
lying down and sleeping. A spot check in the middle of the day will no doubt show excellent
levels when breathing problems first begin because our breathing is at its worst when lying
down and/or sleeping.
To accurately test you, your doctor can arrange for you to use an O2 Sat monitor at home overnight. You just put the device on your finger at bedtime and wear it all night. It monitors oxygen saturation and heart rate, and records it. The next day you return it, the results are retrieved from its memory, and reported to your doctor. If you are breathing too shallowly (hypopnea) your O2 Sat should drop. (CO2 levels would be more accurate in spotting hypopnea but as discussed below, they are not as easily done accurately.) If you have apnea, your O2 Sat will drop briefly but dramatically at repeated intervals.
- These two tests along with a diagnosis of a neuromuscular disease such as ALS and a
description of the problems you are having should be sufficient to get a prescription for BiPAP
and insurance reimbursement for it. Unfortunately sometimes it gets more complicated.
Physicians and/or insurance companies may want more diagnostic evidence and want other tests
- ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)
Doctors tend to be irritatingly fond of these lab tests. ABG's require drawing blood from an artery (usually in the wrist -- an "uncomfortable" procedure). ABG's can tell a doctor a lot more about your respiratory status than just oxygen levels. For example, they tell the CO2 levels, can help determine if your breathing problems are due to lung problems or other problems such as liver or kidney disease and even how well your body is able to compensate for the problem. But ABG's are NOT always necessary.
Although ABG's are a perfect way of checking CO2 levels, they are a total waste of time for the early stages of breathing problems in ALS if they are done when you are wide awake and breathing normally! When breathing problems become severe CO2 levels will be high even when you are awake, but not early on when you first could begin benefiting from BiPAP.
DO NOT allow them to draw ABG's during a daytime appointment (unless you have some other lung disease too) as a first step in determining if you need BiPAP. You have to be in pretty bad shape to have a high CO2 while you are wide awake and being stuck in an artery with a big needle! INSIST that the doctor explain what he needs to know from the ABG's that he can't figure out simply by knowing that you have ALS and overnight O2 Sat monitoring. Your doctor may believe that the insurance company will reject a claim for BiPAP without this bit of supportive evidence but I would ask him to file with all the other info he has on you first and would not agree to the test unless the insurance company rejected my claim.
- Sleep Study Some physicians and/or insurance companies will want you
to have a sleep study done to verify the need for BiPAP. This expensive test involves
spending a night in a sleep lab trying to sleep while you are all wired up with
monitoring devices. The information will tell the doctor whether you have sleep apnea
and help determine what kind of pressure settings your machine will need. A sleep study
is necessary to get a diagnosis of Sleep Apnea, but for an ALS patient that should
not be necessary. The use of BiPAP for the breathing problems accompanying ALS
is well documented and standard care. Simply having a diagnosis of ALS and evidence of
the onset of breathing problems should be sufficient to justify ordering Bi-PAP. A
secondary diagnosis of sleep apnea or hypopnea by a sleep lab should not be needed.
But, depending on your insurer, you may have to jump through their hoops. Again, your
doctor may believe that the insurance company will reject a claim for BiPAP without
this bit of supportive evidence but I would ask him to file with all the other info he
has on you first and would not agree to the test unless the insurance company insisted
If you are required to have a sleep study, be aware that ABG's are commonly done with them. Again it is important that the blood be drawn while you are asleep -- or as soon after awakening as possible. (No one is going to sleep through an arterial blood draw!) Ideally the blood should be drawn first thing upon awakening. I would refuse to have the test done if it was not done at least before I was out of bed. I have heard of instances where it was done after the patient was up to the bathroom, dressed, and ready to go home! No wonder the ABG's did not support her need for BiPAP! You always have a right to refuse a test or medication, and in this case not only is the test useless but it will work against you in getting reimbursement for BiPAP!!!
- ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)